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What is Haematology ?


A haematology test is a measurement of blood to help diagnose and monitor many conditions. Haematological tests can evaluate numerous conditions involving blood and its components. They can also be used to diagnose inflammation, anaemia, infection, haemophilia, blood-clotting disorders, leukaemia, and response to chemotherapy, among many other things. Let’s take a look at some of these tests.

Complete Blood Count Test 

A complete blood count (CBC) measures several components and features of your blood. A CBC and its individual components are tested on whole blood. It can include measurements of the following:

  1. White Blood Cells:

White blood cells (WBC) make up the body’s primary defence system, and knowing their number is an important tool in diagnosing and monitoring infection and leukemic disorders. A normal WBC level is 4,500 – 11,000 per mm³ of blood.

Increased WBC levels are most notably found in those with any type of infection, but are also found in anaemia, collagen disorders, and those with physiologic stress, such as pregnancy. Low WBC levels are seen in malnutrition, rheumatic disorders (like lupus, arthritis), some viral infections, and those undergoing chemotherapy or other forms of bone marrow suppression.

  1. Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells (RBC) are responsible for the transport and exchange of oxygen. Measurement of RBCs is important in monitoring the effects of blood loss and the progression of chronic disease. Normal counts of RBCs are 3,900,000 – 5,800,000 per mm³ of blood.

RBC values are increased in those with anxiety or stress, bone marrow failure, and dehydration. A decreased RBC value will be found in those with chronic inflammatory diseases, chemotherapy patients, anaemia, blood loss, and many cancers.

In addition to a count of WBCs and RBCs, a complete blood count can include further tests to evaluate the size, weight, and shape of those cells. These more detailed tests are helpful in diagnosing and monitoring therapy for cancer and anaemic patients.

  1. Haemoglobin

Haemoglobin (HgB) is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. Haemoglobin levels are a direct reflection of the amount of oxygen in the blood. A normal haemoglobin concentration is 11-15 grams per decilitre of blood.

Increased HgB is seen in those with dehydration, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, and congestive heart failure, or CHF, and those at high altitude. A decreased HgB value is seen in anaemia, blood loss, liver disease, as well as leukaemia and lymphomas.

What are the normal ranges for a complete blood count?

Haemoglobin normal range:

  • Male (ages 15+): 13.0 – 17.0 g/dL
  • Female (ages 15+): 11.5 – 15.5 g/dL

Haematocrit normal range:

    • Male: 40 – 55%
    • Female: 36 – 48%
    • Platelet Count normal range:
    • Adult: 150,000 – 400,000/mL
    • White blood cell (WBC) normal range:
    • Adult: 5,000-10,000/mL


What does a CBC detect ?

A CBC blood test can help your provider diagnose a wide range of conditions, disorders, diseases and infections, including:

  • Anaemia (when there aren’t enough red blood cells to carry oxygen through the body).
  • Bone marrow disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • Disorders such as agranulocytosis and thalassemia’s and sickle cell anaemia.
  • Infections or other problems that cause abnormally low white blood cell count or high white blood cell count.
  • Several types of cancer, including leukaemia and lymphoma.
  • Side effects of chemotherapy and some prescription medications.
  • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
Platelet Content
M.P. Smear(QBC)
Complete Haemogram
Blood Picture
RBC Count
Blood Group RH Type
Prothrombin time
PS For M.P.
Peripheral Smear
Iron/ TIBC, Ferritin
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